Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Understanding The Causes & Treatment
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Understanding The Causes & Treatment
14 Jun 2024

Table of Contents:


  1. Introduction

  2. Understanding Stress and Anxiety Symptoms 

  3. Types of Stress

  4. Causes of Stress

  5. Anxiety Symptoms and Attacks

  6. Diagnostic Criteria for PTSD

6.1 Re-experiencing Symptoms (At least one required)

6.2 Avoidance Symptoms (At least one required)

6.3 Arousal and Reactivity Symptoms (At least two required)

6.4 Cognition and Mood Symptoms (At least two required)

  1. Conclusion 


In today’s fast-paced world, stress and anxiety have become common companions for many of us. These feelings can affect mental and physical health, whether it’s the pressure of work deadlines or financial worries. From occasional nervousness to intense panic attacks, stress and anxiety come in many forms. But what exactly causes them, and how can we manage them effectively?


Understanding Stress and Anxiety Symptoms

Types of Stress:

Stress can manifest in various forms, each with its unique triggers and effects. Acute stress is short-term and often triggered by specific events, such as a job interview or a deadline. Chronic stress, on the other hand, persists over an extended period and is typically associated with ongoing issues like financial troubles or relationship problems. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is another form of stress, resulting from experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event, leading to persistent anxiety and distress.

Causes of Stress:

The causes of stress are as diverse as the individuals experiencing it. Work-related stress can stem from heavy workloads, tight deadlines, or conflicts with colleagues. Financial stress arises from concerns about money, debts, or job insecurity. Personal relationships, health problems, and major life changes also contribute to stress levels. Additionally, traumatic events such as accidents, natural disasters, or acts of violence can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder and severe anxiety.

Anxiety Symptoms and Attacks:

While many individuals experience short-term symptoms after a traumatic event, most do not develop chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Not everyone with PTSD has faced a dangerous situation; even experiences like the sudden, unexpected death of a loved one can trigger PTSD. Diagnosis of PTSD is made by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, with experience in treating mental illnesses.

Diagnostic Criteria for PTSD

For an adult to be diagnosed with PTSD, they must exhibit the following symptoms for at least one month:

Re-experiencing Symptoms (At least one required)

    • Flashbacks: Reliving the trauma repeatedly, often with physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating.
    • Bad dreams
    • Frightening thoughts

    Re-experiencing symptoms can disrupt daily routines and may be triggered by thoughts, feelings, words, objects, or situations that remind the individual of the traumatic event.

    Avoidance Symptoms (At least one required)

      • Avoiding places, events, or objects that remind one of the traumatic experience.
      • Avoiding thoughts or feelings related to the traumatic event.

      Avoidance symptoms can lead to significant changes in personal routines. For instance, someone who experienced a car accident might avoid driving or even riding in cars.

      Arousal and Reactivity Symptoms (At least two required)


        • Easily startled
        • Feeling tense or ‘on the edge’
        • Difficulty sleeping
        • Angry outbursts

        These symptoms are often constant and not necessarily triggered by reminders of the traumatic event. They can make daily tasks challenging, including sleeping, eating, or concentrating.

        Cognition and Mood Symptoms (At least two required)


        • Trouble remembering key aspects of the traumatic event.
        • Negative thoughts about oneself or the world.
        • Distorted feelings like guilt or blame.
        • Loss of interest in enjoyable activities.


        Anxiety attacks, also known as panic attacks, are sudden episodes of intense fear or discomfort, often accompanied by physical symptoms like chest pain, dizziness, or nausea.

        Managing Stress and Anxiety

        While stress and anxiety may seem overwhelming, there are effective strategies for managing them. Here are some techniques to consider:

        Seek Professional Help:

        If stress and anxiety are significantly impacting your daily life, don't hesitate to seek help from a mental health professional. Therapists can provide valuable insights, coping strategies, and support tailored to your individual needs. Additionally, medication may be prescribed in severe cases to alleviate symptoms and facilitate recovery.

        Practice Relaxation Techniques:

        Incorporating anxiety relaxation techniques into your daily routine can help reduce stress and anxiety levels. Deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, and mindfulness meditation are proven methods for promoting relaxation and calming the mind.

        Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle:

        A healthy lifestyle can go a long way in managing stress and anxiety. Regular exercise releases endorphins, chemicals that boost mood and reduce stress. Prioritize nutritious meals, and adequate sleep, and limit caffeine and alcohol intake, as they can exacerbate anxiety symptoms.

        Build a Support Network:

        Don't underestimate the power of social support in times of stress. Surround yourself with friends, family, and loved ones who provide understanding, encouragement, and a listening ear. Joining support groups or engaging in community activities can also foster a sense of belonging and connection.


        One Last Thought:

        Samarpan Health offers a holistic approach to mental well-being, providing resources, support, and guidance for managing stress and anxiety effectively. Their comprehensive programs encompass various therapeutic modalities, self-care techniques, and educational resources to empower individuals on their journey to mental wellness.

        In conclusion, stress and anxiety are common experiences that affect people in different ways. By understanding their causes, symptoms, and effective management techniques, we can take proactive steps toward maintaining our mental health and well-being. Remember, you're not alone, and there are resources and support systems available to help you navigate through life's challenges with resilience and strength.

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